Creating a Raspberry Pi LAMP server
- Install Apache and PHP
- Set permissions on the web directory
- Managing Apache2 modules
- Giving Apache access to the file system
- Create a Virtual Host
- Enabling SSL
- Install the APC support package for PHP
- Install MySQL
- Install phpMyAdmin
This tutorial expects that you already have a Raspberry Pi setup and ready to install your Linux Apache MySQL PHP (LAMP) environment. The article creating a Raspberry Pi web server details how to:
- install Raspbian Linux
- familiarise yourself with the command line and text editor
- performance tuned the OS
- setup networking
- enabled SSH and SFTP
- have made your OS headless
- have made your server secure
- have gone through a server clean up exercise
- changed your hostname
- can access you server via the Internet
- have setup a domain name
Install Apache and PHP
The Apache webserver is available to download from the Debian repositories. This can be done through the apt tools.
First, have you refreshed the software repositories? If not run
sudo apt-get update to make sure that it knows about any new packages/versions available.
The following commands will install Apache and PHP version 5:
sudo apt-get install apache2 php5 libapache2-mod-php5
Next, create an extra file in the
/etc/apache2/conf.d directory as follows:
sudo nano /etc/apache2/conf.d/servername.conf
ServerName into the file under the
Apache2 loads data from the files in
conf.d into its configuration, these changes will remove the error concerning
Apache2 not finding your server name. It is preferable to use this method of adding to the Apache2 configuration as editing the main configuration file may introduce unintentional errors.
Reload the server using:
sudo service apache2 restart
If you want to take a look at your PHP configuration, create the following file:
sudo nano /var/www/phpinfo.php
Inside that file put the following code:
<?php phpinfo(); ?>
Save it and point your browser to http://domain.or.ip/phpinfo.php and this should detail configuration and settings.
Configuration files used by Apache:
- Apache main configuration file: /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
- Virtual domains: /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/domain
- Additional configuration directives: /etc/apache2/conf.d/
- Ports to listen to: /etc/apache2/ports.conf
Set permissions on the web directory
It is useful to change the permissions on the web directory (
www) to allow your user to update the webpages without needing to be the root user.
Change the directory owner and group
sudo chown www-data:www-data /var/www
Allow the group to write to the directory
sudo chmod 775 /var/www
Add the user to the www-data group
sudo usermod -a -G www-data tariq
You should logout and then log back in to pick up group permissions, or you can just start a new terminal.
Managing Apache2 modules
As an example, we will be enabling
mod-rewrite, but the same rules apply for any other module.
Compiled statically inside the Apache2 binary:
core, http_core, prefork/worker/perchild, mod_access, mod_auth, mod_log_config, mod_logio, mod_env, mod_setenvif, mod_mime, mod_status, mod_autoindex, mod_negotiation, mod_dir, mod_alias, mod_so
You can get the list of compiled in modules from the command line:
Apache2 modules installed and ready to be enabled:
actions, asis, auth_anon, auth_dbm, auth_digest, auth_ldap, cache, cern_meta, cgi, cgid, dav, dav_fs, deflate, disk_cache, expires, ext_filter, file_cache, headers, imap, include, info, ldap, mem_cache, mime_magic, proxy, proxy_connect, proxy_ftp, proxy_http, rewrite, speling, ssl, suexec, unique_id, userdir, usertrack, vhost_alias
All the loading and configuration related entries are found in individual files inside the folder
/etc/apache2/mods-available/. Here, we will find files like
module_name.load (and if needed
module_name.conf). Also, all additional installed modules will place their configuration files in the same place.
Inside the folder
/etc/apache2/mods-enabled/ we will find all the enabled modules. Here we will find
symlinks to the files from
mods_available for all the enabled modules.
a2enmod enables an Apache2 module (this does nothing else but creates the proper links to the module
.conf files). For example to enable the rewrite module:
sudo a2enmod rewrite
a2dismod disables an Apache2 module (removes the links from mod-enabled for the module). For example to disable the rewrite module:
sudo a2dismod rewrite
Giving Apache access to the file system
It is prudent to limit Apache's view of the file system to only those directories necessary. Start by denying access to everything then grant access to the necessary directories:
sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/default
Deny access completely to file system root (
/ ) then grant permissions as the default:
<Directory /> Options None AllowOverride None </Directory>
We then need to edit the default Apache2 configuration to set the default location of system web pages, allow access and AllowOverrides from .htaccess files or any rewrite rules created by websites. Find the following:
DocumentRoot /var/www <Directory /var/www/> Options -Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews AllowOverride all Order allow,deny allow from all </Directory>
Create a Virtual Host
Navigate to the location where Apache2 will read configuration files containing our setup for a virtual host:
You can place all virtual host configuration files here. But each file will not be enabled unless a symbolic link to the file is created in the parallel directory
sites-enabled. There is a tool for doing this, which we will use once we have created a virtual host configuration file:
sudo nano oursites.conf
Note that the
oursites is plural, as we may have more than one virtual site! Then edit the file so that it contains the following text:
# oursites.conf # First, the listening port (if not specified elsewhere): Listen 80 # Next, the IP address and port for the virtual host. This assumes # that you have only one IP address and port for this server. # Be sure to substitute your own parameters throughout this file! NameVirtualHost 10.0.0.97:80 # Next, add the default server, because creating a virtual host # causes Apache2 to ignore the default server configured in the # /etc/apache2/sites-available/default file. # If you do not do this, any html files in /var/www will be ignored! <VirtualHost 10.0.0.97:80> DocumentRoot /var/www DirectoryIndex index.htm index.html index.php </VirtualHost> # Next your first virtual server details: <VirtualHost 10.0.0.97:80> ServerAdmin firstname.lastname@example.org ServerName oursite1 ServerAlias samesite1 DocumentRoot /var/www/oursite1 DirectoryIndex index.htm index.html index.php ErrorLog /var/www/oursite1/log/error.log CustomLog /var/www/oursite1/log/access.log </VirtualHost> # This will allow you to access your "oursite1" website by that name.
There are one or two other configuration adjustments to make before this will work. First, create a directory for the Apache2 log files, as given in the oursites.conf file:
Then we must make a link to our new virtual host file in sites-enabled:
sudo a2ensite oursites.conf
This program creates the link for you. Its sister program
a2dissite will remove the link if you wish to take your virtual host site offline.
Finally, it is necessary to enter your new virtual host site name into your Raspberry Pi
/etc/hosts file, your PC workstation
C:\Windows\System32\drivers\etc\hosts file, or into your domain name server (DNS) if you have one.
Finally, restart Apache daemon:
/etc/init.d/apache2 restart or
service apache2 restart.
To enable SSL:
sudo a2enmod ssl sudo a2ensite default-ssl
If you want to use self-signed certificates, you should install the
ssl-cert package detailed in 'Creating self-signed certificates' below. Otherwise, just adjust the SSLCertificateFile and SSLCertificateKeyFile directives in
/etc/apache2/sites-available/default-ssl to point to your SSL certificate. Then restart apache:
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart.
The SSL key file should only be readable by
root, the certificate file may be globally readable. These files are read by the Apache parent process which runs as
root. Therefore, it is not necessary to make the files readable by the
Creating self-signed certificates
If you install the ssl-cert package, a self-signed certificate will be automatically created using the hostname currently configured on your computer. You can recreate that certificate (e.g. after you have changed
/etc/hosts or DNS to give the correct hostname) as user root with:
make-ssl-cert generate-default-snakeoil --force-overwrite
To create more certificates with different host names, you can use
make-ssl-cert /usr/share/ssl-cert/ssleay.cnf /path/to/cert-file.crt
This will ask you for the hostname and place both SSL key and certificate in the file
/path/to/cert-file.crt. Use this file with the SSLCertificateFile directive in the Apache config (you don't need the SSLCertificateKeyFile in this case as it also contains the key). The file
/path/to/cert-file.crt should only be readable by
root. A good directory to use for the additional certificates or keys is
SSL workaround for MSIE
The SSL workaround for MS Internet Explorer needs to be added to your SSL VirtualHost section (it was previously in
ssl.conf but caused
keepalive to be disabled even for non-SSL connections):
BrowserMatch "MSIE [2-6]" \ nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown \ downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0 BrowserMatch "MSIE [17-9]" ssl-unclean-shutdown
The default SSL virtual host in
/etc/apache2/sites-available/default-ssl already contains this workaround.
Install the APC support package for PHP
APC is an alternative caching support system for PHP, which enables PHP intermediate code to be cached. This can improve the performance of Apache2 and other programs which may execute PHP code. Execute the following command to obtain and install the APC support system for PHP:
sudo apt-get install php-apc sudo apt-get install php-pear php5-dev apache2-prefork-dev build-essential make && pecl install apc
Then edit the
php.ini configuration file:
sudo nano /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini and add the following text to the file, in the Dynamic Extension section, some way down the file:
Then to take account of system and configuration changes, stop and start the Apache2 web server:
service apache2 start service apache2 stop
service apache2 restart.
MySQL is the most popular database server, whilst there are other alternatives some of which may require less resources, most third party software for Linux is designed to use MySQL. Remember running MySQL server, to a fair extent, requires at least 256mb of RAM in your server. If you don't need a database then you can skip this.
The MySQL server and MySQL client is also available through the Debian repositories and installed as:
sudo apt-get install mysql-server mysql-client php5-mysql
During the install there is a prompt request for a password. The password is for the MySQL root user.
The configuration file of MySQL is located at:
Creating MySQL users and Changing Root Password
By default MySQL creates a user as root and runs with no password. If you want to change the root password:
mysql -u root mysql> USE mysql; mysql> UPDATE user SET Password=PASSWORD('new-password') WHERE user='root'; mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
You must never use root password, so you will want to create a user so that you can connect to MySQL database for a PHP script. Alternatively, you can add users to MySQL database by using a control panel like phpMyAdmin to easily create or assign database permission to users.
phpMyAdmin is a nice web based database management and administration software and easy to install and configure under Apache. All you need to do is enter:
sudo apt-get install phpmyadmin
The package will begin installing. You will be asked which web server is installed, choose
Next we'll need to configure phpMyAdmin's database. When prompted, choose
Yes. Next you'll be asked for an administrative password, this is the root password that was set during the MySQL installation. You'll be asked to set a password for MySQL. I've used the same password as the MySQL root password, but it is up to you what you set here.
The phpMyAdmin configuration file is located at:
Configure Apache to work with phpMyAdmin
Next we need to change the Apache configuration to allow us to use http://your.raspberrypi.domain/phpmyadmin to access it. To do this, enter the following command to alter the configuration:
sudo nano /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
Navigate to the bottom of the file (keep pressing CTRL and V simultanously to jump pages until you're at the bottom of the file) and add the following new line to the file:
Now restart Apache:
Point your browser to: http://your.raspberrypi.domain/phpmyadmin
That's it! MySQL and phpMyAdmin are ready. Log in with your MySQL root password and create users to connect to database from your php script.
The full Apache 2 documentation can be found on the web at http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/
Some hints about securing Apache 2 on Debian are available at http://wiki.debian.org/Apache/Hardening
Examples of Virtual host configurations available at http://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/vhosts/examples.html